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Such knowledge will enable determination of which critical molecular pathways should be targeted by potential therapeutic agents developed for the treatment of tauopathies.).

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is by far the most common form of dementia; being more prevalent than vascular dementia, mixed dementia, Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

On binding to microtubules, the terminal regions of tau become separated and the N terminus of tau projects away from the microtubule surface ), and although this region of tau does not bind to microtubules directly, it is involved in regulating microtubule dynamics, influencing the attachment and/or spacing between microtubules and other cell components [].

The specific functions of the N-terminal inserts in tau are not yet well established, although these sequences appear to influence the distribution of tau because 0N, 1N, and 2N tau isoforms each show distinct subcellular localisations in mouse brain [].

Exons 4A, 6 and 8 are transcribed exclusively in the peripheral nervous system, from a 9-kb transcript, which is translated into a series of larger tau proteins of 110–120 k Da.

The N and C termini of tau are closely associated when tau is free in the cytoplasm giving rise to the proposed “paper-clip” model of tau conformation.The actual molecular weight (MW, k Da), and the apparent (App.) MW of each tau isoform on SDS-PAGE, are indicated on the Tau expression is developmentally regulated, such that in the adult human brain, all six isoforms of tau are expressed in the CNS, whereas in foetal brain, only the shortest tau isoform (0N3R) is expressed [].Differential splicing of exons 2 and 3 results in 2N tau isoforms being relatively under-represented in comparison to 0N and 1N tau such that 0N, 1N, and 2N tau comprise 37, 54 and 9% of total human CNS tau, respectively [The structure of tau is important for its normal functions.The region of tau that encompasses residues 151–243 (the proline-rich domain) [].The microtubule binding domain consists of four imperfectly repeated motifs, separated by flanking regions, which together provide the primary structures by which tau binds and stabilises microtubules.

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